US-Korea talks on atomic technology ownership fail. The parties will go to arbitration over atomic energy in Poland
Sources told The Korean Economic Daily that the failure of KHNP’s talks with Westinghouse over the ownership of the reactor technology meant the dispute would have to go to arbitration. It will be crucial for Poland, because both of these companies want to build NPPs in the country.
KHNP from South Korea uses APR1400 reactor technology based on Combustion Engineering solutions from the USA acquired by Westinghouse. This US company recognizes that it has the right to the technology used by the Koreans and offers its own AP1000. Both want to build reactors in Poland: the Americans in Pomerania with the state-owned Polish Nuclear Power Plants (PEJ), and the Koreans in Greater Poland with the state-owned PGE and ZE PAK.
The International Chamber of Commerce is already assessing the losses suffered by both sides of the dispute after October 2022, when the Koreans revealed their desire to build APR1400 reactors in Pątnów, so the Americans referred the case to the US court. According to them, the transfer of this technology requires their consent due to export control regulations. The Koreans argue that they have already “koreanized ” this technology and do not need to ask anyone for permission.
PEJ, Westinghouse and Bechtel want to build three AP1000 reactors with the first one ready in 2033 at the Lubiatowo-Kopalino site in Pomerania. KHNP, PGE and ZE PAK want to build two APR1400S by 2036 in Pątnów, Wielkopolska. The dispute between rivals over atom in Poland may have an impact on the schedule of these projects. However, the KED source assures that the Americans and Koreans will continue to negotiate “under the table” during the arbitration.
Korean Economic Daily / Wojciech Jakóbik
E10: Poles will ensure the right quality of the petrol revolution
On January 1, 2024, PERN will introduce a new gasoline format 95 E10, which will contain more bioethanol than its predecessors. The revolution in the fuel market will cost three million zlotys.
PERN is preparing a change in the fuel market. On January 1, 2024 the company will introduce a new format of gasoline-95 E10. It contains more bioethanol than the current gasoline 95 E5.
“The main difference between these products is the increased content of bioethanol (ethyl alcohol) from a maximum of 5 percent currently to a maximum of 10 percent in the new format. PERN laboratories have already carried out a number of control tests to prepare for the implementation of the new product. The company has determined what is especially important in the logistical process to ensure high product quality,” PERN said in a press release.
The PERN laboratory system consists of eight fuel and three oil laboratories. The oil laboratories are located at the bases in Adamów and Miszewko Strzałkowskie and at the oil terminal in Gdańsk. Their main job is to conduct laboratory tests of crude oil, which is transported and stored in the PERN system, in order to determine its physical and chemical parameters.
The liquid fuel laboratories perform tests on fuels, biofuels and liquid biocomponents in accordance with the requirements of product standards. The largest of its kind at PERN is the Laboratory of Liquid Fuels and Environmental Protection in Nowa Wieś Wielka. The others operate in bases in Koluszki, Boronów, Rejowiec, Emilianów, Wola Rzędzińska, Kawice and Małaszewicz.
PERN / Jędrzej Stachura
Belarusian helicopters on the border are just the beginning. Defence Ministry warns of further provocations
Poland confirms that Belarusian military helicopters violated its airspace. A warning about more provocations has been issued.
W związku z naruszeniem przestrzeni powietrznej przez dwa białoruskie śmigłowce, do Ministerstwa Spraw Zagranicznych RP w trybie natychmiastowym wezwana została charge d’affairs Ambasady Białorusi
Polish MFA has submitted a stern protest letter and called on the Belarusian side to immediately explain the incident in detail. The Polish side stressed that the incident is seen as another element of the escalation of tension on the Polish-Belarusian border. Poland expects Belarus to refrain from such activities.
“The border crossing took place in the area of Białowieża at a very low altitude, making it difficult to detect by radar systems. Therefore, in a morning statement, the Operational Command of the Armed Forces reported that Polish radar systems did not record a violation of Polish airspace,” the Defense Ministry said.
Polish Minister of National Defense Mariusz Blaszczak “ordered to increase the number of soldiers on the border and allocate additional forces and resources, including combat helicopters.” “In view of possible further provocations, we call for the responsible dissemination and commenting of information that may be used by the Russian and Belarusian regimes,” the ministry said.
Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is underway, and the Poles are engaged in Western support for Kyiv. Most of the Western aid comes through Poland. Even before the invasion, there were numerous provocations on the Polish-Belarusian border with the use of a wave of migrants.
Ministry Of National Defense / Wojciech Jakóbik